HIV infection rates among women are directly affected by a lack of control over their own economic, social, and sexual lives, a report from the Open Society Foundations and United Nations Development Programme argues. According to Tools for Change: Applying United Nations Standards to Secure Women's Housing, Land, and Property Rights in the Context of HIV (86 pages, PDF), more than half of those living with HIV worldwide — and 60 percent of those in sub-Saharan Africa — are women. Indeed, because of gender inequality and disempowerment, gender-based violence, and lack of economic and property rights, women are more vulnerable than men to HIV infection. And once they are infected, they are subject to more discrimination than men. The publication highlights international human rights standards and resources, advocacy strategies, and examples of successful efforts to improve women's access to housing, land, and property, all of which help to mitigate the incidence and effects of domestic violence.